Students watched clips of car accidents and were then given questions- one of which was a leading question. Forster et al found supporting evidence for this in one study where participants who thought they were watching a real-life robbery and believed their responses would have an impact on an upcoming trial actually be more accurate in their recall. Long term memory store of personal events. The results found that 71% of witnesses who had discussed the event went on to mistakenly recall items acquired during their discussion. There is also research evidence to suggest the Yerkes-Dodson curve is far too simplified to explain how anxiety affects eyewitness accounts. They then learned a new list, there were six groups of participants that had to learn different types of lists: -evidence from lab studies e.g. Fisher et al found supporting evidence for the cognitive interview in real-world studies when 16 police officers interviewed 47 people twice who were victims of crime themselves or witnesses. The same was true vice versa too with better recall shown when the learning context remained the same as encoding. Delays of 10 seconds or more before recall resulted in only a primacy effect with only long-term memory affected. High school year books were obtained from participants. A method of interviewing eyewitnesses to help them retrieve more accurate memories. The model is supported by amnesia cases as patients have been found to either lose their short-term memory or long-term memory abilities but not both. The new memory, therefore, affects recall of the old memory. For example, he noted that things com in 7s: there are seven notes on the musical scale, 7 days of the week, 7 deadly sins, and so on.suggesting that the capacity of the STM is around 7 items (plus or minus). They have to retrieved consciously with effort. AQA A-level Psychology Memory. A Level Psychology – Modelling Memory. It suggests that STM is a dynamic processor of different types of information using sub-units coordinated by a central decision-making system. This may be explained due to highly motivated participants displaying demand characteristics that may not be indicative of real witnesses. Recreate the context of the event itself with the witness encouraged to mentally recreate the environment or contacts they may have had as well as their own psychological state. Case studies such as HM (Milner 1962) support the case for procedural and declarative memory stores being distinctively different. Also with student participants age could be a confounding variable as research in other studies has found memory recall to be affected by this and therefore the study may lack internal validity and not be accurately measuring the effects of the cognitive interview completely but rather how one interview technique affects a certain age range of people. Topic 5: Psychopathology. The students involved may also have been motivated participants which again is not always indicative of real witnesses and this may affect recall and limit the cognitive interviews application. 7 Decks - 41 Cards - 5 Learners. This would result in greater recall than being in a different room. The case study of Clive Wearing highlights this further where he was found to have lost his episodic memory but not procedural, again suggesting more than one type of long-term memory store. Environmental context such as being at a particular place can trigger retrieval as can particular sights or sounds if they are experienced strongly enough during encoding. This includes our memories of learned skills. They allow you to figuratively travel back in time to remember the event that took place at that particular time and place. This highlighted the difference in short-term memory and long-term memory, supporting the theory. Revision guide for AQA Psychology AS and A-Level Papers, including staightforward study notes and summaries of the relevant theories and studies, past papers, and mark schemes with example answers. The model is also unable to explain how musical memory works as participants may be able to listen to instrumental music without impeding their performances in other acoustic tasks. Doing this may help trigger contextual or emotional cues which aid recall. You now only need to know about how factors such as misleading information and anxiety affect eyewitness testimony. Example Answer for Question 08 Paper 1: A Level Psychology, June 2017 (AQA) Exam technique advice Working Memory Model: Example Answer Video for A Level SAM 2, Paper 1, Q7 (4 Marks) However, although the cognitive interview was effective in gaining more information it was also found to increase the amount of incorrect information given from witnesses. Abernethy (1940) found that after participants had learnt various material, they showed greater difficulty with recall when they were tested by an unfamiliar teacher in an unfamiliar room compared to a familiar teacher and familiar room. Baddeley (1997) criticised the encoding specificity principle as impossible to test and verify for certain making it unscientific. This helps us recall procedures such as how to tie our shoelaces, cycle or swim. The WMM is only a model for temporary short-term memory and does not attempt to explain how memory works as a whole including long-term memory. Shallice et al highlighted this with a case study of KF who suffered brain damage resulting in difficulty with verbal information in short-term memory but normal ability with visual information. recall was tested by: An explanation of memory based on three separate memory stores, and how information is transferred between these stores. Also provides a bridge between working memory and long-term memory. While he performed well on reasoning tasks suggesting his Central Executive was functional, he struggled with poor decision-making skills suggesting some elements of his Central Executive was partly damaged. AQA A Level psychology past papers can be found on this dedicated page. If rehearsed and processed deep enough (e.g. swimming, reading or cycling and does not require conscious thought. Keppel and underwood (1962) demonstrated proactive interference. (3 marks), Explain how post-event discussion might create inaccuracy in eyewitness testimony (3 marks), Describe one research study on the effect misleading information has on eyewitness testimony (5 marks), Outline and evaluate research into how misleading questions affect eyewitness testimony (12 marks AS and 16 marks A-level), Explain how anxiety might affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (3 marks), Describe one research study related to the effect of anxiety on eyewitness testimony (5 marks), Discuss research on the effect of anxiety on eyewitness testimony (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level), Outline and explain two techniques used in the cognitive interview (3+3 marks), Explain how the cognitive interview differs from a standard interview (4 marks), Discuss the use of the cognitive interview as a means of improving the accuracy of eyewitness testimony and memory (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level). Other research suggests age is also a mitigating factor which could be a confounding variable beyond simply anxiety and this needs to be considered also. This may be down to feeling a different emotion for example and trying to remember something when you were happy while you are feeling sad. semantic processing).There are thre… While the Phonological loop and Visuospatial sketchpad deal with the processing and temporary storage of specific types of information, the episodic buffer works as an extra buffer that integrates information from all 3 main systems as well as longterm memory. Long-term memory may not be a single store either as Schachter et al proposed 4 different types of long-term memory stores. A Level Psychology Memory 16 mark essays. This model proposes that as physiological arousal increases beyond the moderate optimum level, unlike the Yerkes-Dodson curve where there is a steady decline, they observed a drastic drop in performance which they proposed is caused by increased mental anxiety and worry. - Developed amnesia due to an illness that destroyed his hippocampus. Baddeley’s (1975) study did find supporting evidence for cue dependent learning and how context cues aided retrieval. When it comes to eyewitness testimony, Elizabeth Loftus is the person you really need to know about for your studies. (no rating) 0 customer reviews 0 customer reviews While doing this they were tasked with one of two other tasks: One, to describe all the angles on the letter F and another to perform a verbal task. Degree of forgetting is greater when memories are similar, Effects of similarity McGeoch and McDonald. Then they were given 50 photos, some with people from their school year book. Rate 5 stars Rate 4 stars Rate 3 stars Rate 2 stars Rate 1 star . Much of the evidence for testing the different components such as the VSS and the PL have often relied on dual-task techniques where participants are required to carry out two simultaneous activities. -suffered anterograde amnesia (cannot form new memories) after having surgery. A response-bias explanation- wording of the question doesn't effect the memory but influences how they decide to answer. Klauer & Zhao provided support for the visual cache and inner scribe. A major weakness to the working memory model is little is known about the main component, the Central Executive or how it works and there is evidence suggesting this is not unitary. One major weakness with interference theory is the interference effects are more evident in laboratory-based settings using various memory-based tasks. Start studying AQA a-level psychology: memory. This suggests the Phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad are separate systems supported by biological evidence. How To Revise For GCSE Psychology Step-by-Step, Chapter 8: Issues and Debates in Psychology, Outline the multi-store model of memory (6 marks), Evaluate the multi-store memory model (6 marks AS, 8-10 marks A-level), Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level), Explain what normative social influence is (4 marks), Explain what informational social influence is (4 marks), Outline and evaluate normative and informational social influence explanations of conformity (12 marks for AS and 16 marks for A-level), Outline the working memory model (6 marks), Describe the strengths of the working memory model (4), Describe the weaknesses of the working memory model (4), Discuss the working memory model outlining the strengths and weaknesses (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level), What is meant by proactive interference and retroactive interference? In their key study, 45 students were shown several films of road traffic incidents and then given a questionnaire to describe the accident and answer a series of questions about their observation. It is also involved in directing “attention” and resources towards particular tasks. The pre-frontal cortex of the brain is linked to the initial coding of episodic memories and consolidation and storage associated with the neocortex. However again the replicated studies tend to be within artificial settings which could be affecting results and lack external validity and wider generalisation to real-world situations which is again limited. 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