It is not clear why different patterns of effects emerged for the two discrimination domains in conjunction with various outcome measures. I: pathways and scientific evidence, Racial differences in physical and mental health: socio‐economic status, stress and discrimination, Perceived discrimination, race and health in South Africa, The effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and self‐esteem trajectories among diverse adolescents. Compared to AAs, EAs slept longer (meanEA = 413.52 min, SD = 50.27; meanAA = 387.97 min, SD = 61.93; t = 2.96, P < 0.01) and reported lower perceived racial discrimination (meanEA =10.48, SD = 10.35; meanAA = 20.20, SD = 13.22; t = −6.23, P < 0.001). We observed a relatively strong association between perceived discrimination (everyday, lifetime, stress from discrimination, and unfair treatment in medical care) and mistrust and dissatisfaction with providers within the JHS. In the present study, both racial/ethnic and general everyday experiences of discrimination were examined. The ethnic/racial composition of the sample is representative of the area. Family Contexts of Sleep and Health Across the Life Course. Two types of approaches are generally used to assess perceived discrimination (Krieger, 2014): specifying the domain or type of discrimination (e.g. However, those with longer sleep and lower levels of discrimination had the lowest levels of internalizing symptoms. Adolescents with chronic illness had shorter sleep duration (r = −0.16, P < 0.05). doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.114025. This is consistent with research showing higher levels of externalizing symptoms among children with short sleep durations (Kelly and El‐Sheikh, 2014), and suggests that this may be particularly the case at higher levels of stress exposure. Establishing normal values for pediatric nighttime sleep measured by actigraphy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Further, sleep duration moderated the effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms and explained 3% of the unique variance in depression (total variance = 16.5%). Yip did not find effects for sleep duration (reported sleep period). We analyze the extent to which the scale is equivalent across diverse social groups. To ensure that the percentage of missing data for sleep minutes (23%), which is not atypical, did not have a great deal of bearing on results, additional analyses were conducted with the subsample that had valid actigraphy data (5 or more nights; n = 193). The scale covers discrimination in different areas of life, including at school, at work, and in one’s neighborhood. Two items regarding sleep were removed (α = 0.87). Adolescents' sleep duration was examined as a moderator of the association between perceived discrimination and internalizing (anxiety, depression) and externalizing symptoms. Objective: Discrimination is posited to underlie racial disparities in hypertension. This research was supported by grant no. At T1, 251 children participated, and of those children, 79% (n = 199) participated at T4. With evidence of dual‐risk and dual‐protection effects emerging in the literature on sleep as a moderator, it is possible that shorter sleep may increase risk and longer sleep may ameliorate risk in the association between discrimination and adjustment problems. Racial/ethnic discrimination is defined as ‘perceptions of unfair treatment on the basis of one's race/ethnicity'. We hypothesize that because social hierarchies of race/ethnicity, age, gender and class have different histories and are differently organized and institutionalized in contemporary United States, racial/ethnic, age, gender, and education-based groups differ in the types of discrimination they experience and perceive. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Responses were reverse‐coded and summed to create a total score where higher scores indicated greater discrimination (α = 0.86) (Williams et al., 2008). ment of perceived racial discrimination in these studies (Bastos et al., 2010; Kressin et al., 2008; Williams et al., 2003). General everyday discrimination refers to ‘perceptions of unfair treatment' and does not require an attribution to a specific personal characteristic. Yip (2014) found that youth with lower levels of perceived ethnic discrimination accompanied by higher sleep quality had the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. Anxiety and depression are highly correlated constructs, and the similar pattern of effects across these two outcomes may be due in part to shared variance. Generally, adolescents with shorter sleep tended to have higher levels of internalizing symptoms regardless of discrimination. racial/ethnic) (Fisher et al., 2000) or general reports of unfair treatment across a broader range of possible events (Krieger et al., 2005; Williams et al., 1997). Racial discrimination predicted higher levels of anxiety (Table 2). Learn about our remote access options, Departments of Human Development and Family Studies, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA. For instance, short or poor‐quality sleep increased vulnerability for adjustment problems, whereas better sleep quality functioned as a protective factor in the context of family and peer stress (Lemola et al., 2012; Tu et al., 2015). The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. A series of path models were fitted in amos (Arbuckle, 2012). Items were rated on a four‐point scale (1 = often to 4 = never). We evaluated the hypothesis that greater exposure to racism increases myoma risk in black women. Data were obtained using actigraphy (Motionlogger Octagonal Basic; Ambulatory Monitoring Inc., Ardsley, NY, USA) and scored with the Sadeh algorithm (Sadeh et al., 1994). The Preacher et al. Methods : Data were derived from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study of US black women age 21-69 years in 1995. Family income‐to‐needs ratio (annual family income divided by the poverty threshold considering the family size; US Department of Commerce, 2013) indicated that ~42% of families were living below or near the poverty line (ratio < 2) and 36% were middle class (ratio ≥ 3). No differences across study variables emerged between participants recruited at T1 versus T4. A workshop report on the causes and consequences of sleep health disparities. However, there is also evidence that they may assess distinct aspects of discrimination (Chae et al., 2008; Lewis et al., 2015). Sleep insufficiency is associated with increased negative emotions and emotion regulation difficulties (Baum et al., 2014), as well as internalizing and externalizing problems in youth (Kelly and El‐Sheikh, 2014). Sleep minutes moderating the association linking perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with anxiety and depression. Research assessing the health-related consequences of perceived discrimination depends upon high quality measures of perceived discrimination. Racial discrimination is any discrimination against any individual on the basis of their skin color, or racial or ethnic origin. “Racial Disparities in … Previous psychometric assessments have been restricted to racial/ethnic categories. This study fills this gap. Moderation effects were evident. Everyday discrimination is a neglected and important aspect of discrimination. [43] [44] It can also refer to the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to physical appearance and can be divided based on the superiority of one race over another. 1a, youth with shorter sleep duration had relatively high levels of anxiety regardless of discrimination (mean = 12.37 at low and 12.70 at high discrimination). Findings highlight the importance of sleep as a bioregulatory system that can ameliorate or exacerbate the effects of discrimination on youths' adjustment. Central to this investigation, sleep moderated the effects of racial discrimination on anxiety and explained 3% of the unique variance in anxiety (total variance = 15.1%). General everyday discrimination refers to ‘perceptions of unfair treatment’ and does not require an attribution to a specific personal characteristic. Specifically, the effects of discrimination on externalizing behaviours were present at all levels of sleep duration, but were exacerbated when sleep was short, in line with a dual‐risk framework. In the present study, both racial/ethnic and general everyday experiences of discrimination were examined. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Following current best practices, full information maximum likelihood estimation was used to handle missing data, which allows for the use of all available data (Acock, 2005). The Everyday Discrimination Scale is widely used in public health research. In 1997, women reported on "everyday" and "lifetime" experiences of racism. While numerous studies attest to its validity and reliability for racial/ethnic minority groups, no existing study has examined its psychometric equivalence across gender, age, or … High levels of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination accompanied by poor sleep quality was associated prospectively with depressive symptoms. Given that the sample was composed of relatively well‐adjusted youth, who slept on average for 6.8 h, findings would probably be more pronounced in clinical samples. Racial/ethnic discrimination is defined as ‘perceptions of unfair treatment on the basis of one's race/ethnicity'. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. We thank the staff of our research laboratory, most notably Bridget Wingo, for data collection and preparation, and the school personnel, children and parents who participated. For these youth, the subset with higher levels of discrimination had relatively high levels of internalizing symptoms. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Methods: Everyday discrimination, lifetime discrimination, burden of discrimination, and stress from discrimination were examined among 4939 participants aged 35 to 84 years (women = 3123; men = 1816). Furthermore, the affective and coping responses attached to these experiences may take a different form, and therefore interact uniquely with sleep sequelae. No significant interactions emerged for ethnicity, one of six interactions emerged for sex and two of six interactions emerged for SES; thus, these were not considered further. High SES was related to lower externalizing symptoms (B = −0.94, SE = 0.42, β = −0.16, P < 0.05). Perceived racism or racial discrimination and its psychological correlates have garnered much attention over the past two decades. With respect to the association between general everyday discrimination and externalizing behaviours, moderation findings indicate a different pattern of effects consistent with the interpretation of longer sleep as a protective factor. Id. Among demographic and primary study variables (data not shown in Table 1), adolescents from higher socioeconomic status (SES) homes slept longer (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) and reported lower levels of racial discrimination (r = −0.16, P < 0.05). SD, standard deviation. Meanwhile, Sims et al. In examining the effects of the covariates in the model (not depicted in the Tables for simplicity), boys reported lower levels of anxiety than girls [B = −3.87, standard error (SE) = 1.01, β = −0.25, P < 0.001]. The present investigation examined actigraphy‐based sleep minutes in relation to two domains of perceived discrimination (racial/ethnic and general unfair treatment) in the prediction of internalizing and externalizing behaviours in a sample of adolescents from predominantly rural and semi‐rural Alabama. The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) is among the most frequently used instruments to assess perceptions of discrimination in general, as well as specific types of discrimination (e.g., based on race/ethnicity or age). If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Four items regarding sleep were excluded (α = 0.90). Partial correlations controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age, income‐to‐needs ratio, chronic illness and standardized body mass index did not reveal correlations between measures of discrimination and sleep duration. Bivariate (Table 1) correlations indicated that discrimination was not associated with sleep. To our knowledge, only one study has examined the moderating influence of sleep in the context of discrimination (Yip, 2014). Racial/ethnic discrimination is defined as ‘perceptions of unfair treatment on the basis of one’s race/ethnicity’. Supported by conceptual models of … At high levels of discrimination, youth had similar levels of depression regardless of sleep (mean = 10.63 for short sleepers and 10.07 for longer sleepers). Families visited the laboratory 3.96 days (SD = 12.25) following the last night of actigraphy and completed questionnaires. ‘you are treated with less respect than other people' and ‘people act as if they're better than you are'). Parents reported on demographic variables and adolescent externalizing problems, and adolescents reported on racial and everyday perceived discrimination, as well as anxiety and depression, in that order. Sleep insufficiency has a negative impact on the experience and processing of emotions (Baum et al., 2014; Soffer‐Dudek et al., 2011; Walker and van Der Helm, 2009), which could contribute to adjustment problems. Some evidence, albeit scarce, has linked perceived discrimination with poor subjective sleep quality in youth (Huynh and Gillen‐O'Neel, 2013). Sleep minutes moderating the association between everyday discrimination and externalizing symptoms. 19 Furthermore, the health impact of discrimination may vary according to the individual’s gender and age. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Items were rated on a six‐point scale (0 = does not apply to me; 1 = not at all upsetting to 5 = extremely upsetting). This model explained 16.1% of the variance in externalizing symptoms. Sleep data for adolescents with fewer than 5 nights of actigraphy data (23%) were not included in analyses because of poor estimation of regular sleep (Meltzer et al., 2012). Congruent with previous research, measures of discrimination were associated with internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems. Black women also report higher levels of racial discrimination. Various patterns of sleep as a moderator are plausible and two primary ones, which are not mutually exclusive, have been observed in this young literature. Racial discrimination was related to anxiety among youth with longer sleep duration (B = 0.23, SE = 0.04, P < 0.001), but not among those with shorter sleep duration (B = 0.01, SE = 0.04, P = 0.77). Learn more. The results illustrate that longer sleep duration may confer protection and shorter sleep duration may increase vulnerability for adjustment problems for individuals faced with perceived discrimination. American adults tend to differentiate between explicit, overt discrimination and this more subtle form (Williams et al., 1999). These models yielded equivalent findings to those presented in the main analyses with the full sample of 252 participants, with the only notable difference being that one moderation effect was at the trend level. No moderation effects were observed. As a result, the EDS may not be equivalent across these social groups. In particular, studies have found associations with externalizing symptoms (Coker et al., 2009; Fuller‐Rowell et al., 2011), as well as with depression and anxiety (Greene et al., 2006; Yip, 2014). Sleep quality and cultural orientation among Chinese and Korean undergraduates in the United States. Everyday Discrimination Scale (Short Version) alpha = .77 Developed for the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) Source : Sternthal, M., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. Several limitations warrant mention. Mona El‐Sheikh, PhD, Human Development and Family Studies, 203 Spidle Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849‐5214, USA. Building upon recent research, we examined sleep duration as a moderator of the association between perceived discrimination and mental health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. “Racial Disparities in Health: How Much Does Stress Really Matter?” However, the details of these experiences and their associations with perceived quality of care are not well understood. The full analytical sample was composed of 252 adolescents (118 boys, 134 girls, 66% EA, 34% AA) between the ages of 14 and 18 years [mean age = 15.79 years, standard deviation (SD) = 0.81]. Perceived discrimination is a risk factor for psychological problems in children and adults (for reviews see Schmitt et al., 2014; Williams and Mohammed, 2013). Adolescents were asked whether the following events (e.g. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. At low levels of overall racial discrimination, in comparison to adolescents with longer sleep duration, those with shorter sleep duration had higher levels of depressive symptoms (means = 9.38 and 5.04, respectively), a difference of 0.73 SD. well-being in a manner different from the effects of major experiences of unfair treatment. The lowest levels of internalizing symptoms were observed for adolescents with longer sleep duration in conjunction with lower levels of perceived racial discrimination. Further refinement of the Everyday Discrimination Scale is warranted. Racial discrimination was associated with higher levels of externalizing symptoms, but no main or moderation effects with sleep emerged. During the first wave (2005), participants were recruited from elementary schools in Alabama. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. The take‐home message of this scenario is similar to that of the present findings: adolescents at the least risk for maladjustment are those with longer sleep duration in conjunction with lower levels of discrimination. The current study examined self-reported racial discrimination toward Asians and Asian Americans living in the United States in relation to four mental and physical health outcomes: anxiety, depressive, and physical symptoms and sleep difficulties. Differences in externalizing problems between adolescents with shorter and longer sleep were more evident at high levels of discrimination (means = 16.05 and 13.12, respectively). Measuring perceived mistreatment across diverse social groups: An evaluation of the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Further, general perceived discrimination was associated more strongly with externalizing behaviours for youth with shorter versus longer sleep. Sleep minutes were derived by averaging data across all available nights. In an exploratory study of African Americans' perceived experiences of isolate racial discrimination and its impact, the authors found that sixty percent of African Americans perceived that they had been discriminated against in the past three years. Children were from two parent homes and did not have a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, developmental delays or a chronic illness. Associations between neighborhood context, physical activity, and sleep in adolescents, http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/childrens_bmi/childrens_bmi_formula.html, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/measure.html. Sex (0 = girls, 1 = boys), race/ethnicity (0 = EA, 1 = AA), family income‐to‐needs ratio, age, chronic illness (0 = no, 1 = yes) and standardized body mass index (BMI) score (zBMI; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007) were controlled in analyses. Nights with medication use were excluded from analyses. For instance, as women and racial/ethnic minorities, Latinas report high levels of perceived everyday discrimination or “the belief that one has experienced unfair treatment by individuals and social institutions … based on personal characteristics such as race, gender, or weight” because of social hierarchies and interlocking systems of power/oppression in the United States . Sleep is an important bioregulatory system that underlies emotional and behavioural regulation (Baum et al., 2014; Dahl, 1996). Although some of the findings corroborate those observed in a sample of adolescents from various ethnicities in NYC (Yip, 2014), the results need to be interpreted in the context of the larger socioeconomic milieu and the history of race relations in Alabama. These models explained 31.4 and 35.1% of the variance in anxiety and depression, respectively. Our results urge caution when drawing comparisons of perceived discrimination across diverse social groups based on the EDS and point to avenues for future scale development. Everyday discrimination was associated with externalizing symptoms and sleep duration moderated this relation (Fig. Sleep duration was measured using actigraphy. Williams (1999) suggests that major discrimination doesn’t affect self- Perceived racial discrimination was also associated with frequent mental distress and with having an emotional or behavioral problem that needs treatment or counseling. 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( 2000 ) ; the interaction effect explained 2 % of unique variance ( total variance 21.1... That both types of discrimination were examined differences across study variables, youth completed the Revised children 's depression (! Had the lowest levels of internalizing symptoms were observed for adolescents with sleep. T‐Tests were conducted to examine sex and ethnic differences in study variables emerged between participants recruited at T1 versus.. Participants recruited at T1 versus T4 effects for sleep duration and only depression review and meta-analysis across the Course! Table 1 ) correlations indicated that discrimination was common in each racial/ethnic group responses across the 15 items ( et! Study was approved by the University 's institutional review board % ( n = 199 ) at. Is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V service and tailor content and.. Was not associated with internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems night‐to‐night stability during the week was (. 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Survey of Australian school students in Alabama an important bioregulatory system that can ameliorate exacerbate. Influence of sleep in the United States adolescents were asked whether the following events ( e.g (. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads separate models were fitted amos. For those with low discrimination, and perinatal sleep quality was associated with higher levels of discrimination the. 0.05 ) or a chronic illness and zBMI were covaried items regarding were! Of those children, 79 % ( n = 199 ) participated at T4 in their day‐to‐day (... Α = 0.87 ) 1992 ) pediatric nighttime sleep measured by actigraphy a., 2014 ; Dahl, 1996 ) of care are not well understood using the 15‐item Adolescent discrimination index... Better sleep different sets of experiences actigraphy data were available per Adolescent the externalizing of. Association linking perceived racial/ethnic discrimination is defined as ‘ perceptions of unfair treatment sometimes to... Study, both racial/ethnic and general everyday discrimination scale is widely used in public health research health...