Function Of temperature Sensor : A Sensor is nothing but a measuring device which senses a parameter e.g. The temperature probe is provided with a four-core cable used as a standard in all Encardio-rite vibrating wire strain gauges. The temperature sensors are used for verifying design assumptions that will promote safer and economical design and construction. Such temperature sensors fall under the category contact-type. Your email address will not be published. A thermocouple (T/C) is made from two dissimilar metals that generate an electrical voltage in direct proportion with the change in temperature. The relay whose contact is used for load, is driven by microcontroller using a transistor driver. Temperature sensors are constructional elements for measuring temperature and employ the functional dependence of a certain physical property of the sensor material on temperature, which is customarily recognized and well defined [672, 673]. The volume of the thermometer is linearly proportional to the temperature – when the temperature increases, the volume of the thermometer also increases.When the liquid is heated it expands inside the narrow tube of the ther… The working of a temperature meter depends upon the voltage across the diode. This was all about the temperature sensors, their different types, applications, uses, as well as, working principle. They can measure rock temperatures near liquid gas storage tanks and ground freezing operations. For this, the temperature should be accurately measured at many points in the structure, in the water and in the air. consists of a bulb that contains a gas, which in contact with a hot body Thermistors or thermally sensitive resistors are the ones that change their physical appearance when subjected to change in the temperature. As an example, Tronic’s TE temperature controller incorporate a KTY-81 temperature sensor. 6. The temperature probes have excellent linearity and hysteresis. Thermometer contains a liquid, which is mercury or alcohol in its glass tube. It primarily consists of a magnetic, high tensile strength stretched wire, the two ends of which are fixed to any dissimilar metal in a manner that any change in temperature directly affects the tension in the wire and, thus, its natural frequency of vibration. The frequency, which is proportional to the temperature and in turn to the tension ‘σ’ in the wire, can be determined as follows: Temperature sensors are available of various types, shapes, and sizes. We use cookies to ensure that we give the best user experience on our website. A few temperature sensors should be placed near and in the downstream face of the concrete dam to evaluate the rapid daily and weekly fluctuation in temperature. Thus, compensation is achieved for lead resistance and temperature change in lead resistance. RTDs are precise temperature sensors that are made up of high-purity conducting metals such as platinum, copper or nickel wound into a coil. In geotechnical monitoring field, these temperature sensors are used to measure the internal temperature of structures like bridges, dams, buildings, power plants, etc. two temperature sensors are used: one to measure the temperature of the outside The temperature sensors include an ambient temperature sensor, a cabin temperature sensor, an evaporator temperature sensor, and a water temperature sensor. The resistance element is housed in a closed-end robust stainless steel tubing which protects the element against moisture. One of the most common areas where they are used is while curing the concrete because it has to be relatively warm in order to set and cure properly. The temperature sensors are used for verifying design assumptions that will promote safer and economical design and construction. The temperature sensor market is currently dominated by Honeywell (US), TE Connectivity (Switzerland), Texas Instruments (US), Endress+Hauser (Switzerland), and Siemens (Germany). with alarms for example. The low thermal mass results in faster response time. This implies that if a third material is added at the same temperature, no net voltage is generated by the new material. Extruders require high temperature and high pressures. Temperature Sensors . Temperature sensors can only be used for most applications if they are reliable, accurate, provide good resolution, deliver timely updates and have low latency. EEPROM is used to store predefined temperature settings by user through the 8051 series microcontroller. Temperature sensors are a simple instrument that measures the degree of hotness or coolness and converts it into a readable unit. The sum of all the thermoelectric forces in a circuit with a number of dissimilar materials at a uniform temperature is zero. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo. We’ll look at the main types being the Thermometer, Thermocouple, Resistance Temperature Sensor and the Thermistor as well as a comparison of the technologies towards the end. It is based on the principle of voltage difference change for a temperature change; this voltage change will provide the surrounding temperature equivalent. The resistance across the diode is measured and converted into readable units of temperature (Fahrenheit, Celsius, Centigrade, etc.) Various temperature transducers that are generally used are described below: Thermistor. ETT-10TH can be embedded in concrete for measurement of bulk temperature inside the concrete and can even work submerged underwater. Besides this, Encardio-Rite has a vibrating wire temperature sensor that works on the principle of stress change due to temperature change. A temperature sensor is a device that is designed to measure the degree of hotness or coolness in an object. The heat of the body to be measured affects a thermocouple, consisting of two sheets of different metals, a device that is capable of generating an electric current, variable depending on the temperature to which it is heated, which the receiver receives. Thanks to this we obtain the following benefits: Did not find what you were looking for? The RTD wire is a pure material, typically platinum, nickel, or copper. Many RTD elements consist of a length of fine wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core but other constructions are also used. would be when it was traditionally used in the kitchen to know the temperature Due to the large resistance change per degree Celsius, even a small temperature change is displayed accurately by the Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) Thermistor. It is also used in hostelry in kitchens. IR sensors are used in gas analyzers which use absorption characteristics of gases in the IR region. into a signal which can be measured electrically. Temperature sensing applications include air temperature, surface temperature, immersion temperature. They contain two similar diodes with temperature-sensitive voltage and current characteristics to measure the temperature changes effectively. It is also used in hostelry in kitchens. They find their use-cases in numerous industries that include FMCG, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and others where temperature-monitoring is crucial. Have built in A-D Converters They are used to measure the temperature rise during the process of curing concrete. From: Science of Heat and Thermophysical Studies, 2005. The sensor measures a certain voltage induced by a temperature difference in two joints of two joined metals. is a device that, by mechanical or electrical means, transmits from one place It provides a huge resistance at very low temperatures. Non-contact temperature sensors use principle of convection for heat flow. ETT-10TH resistance temperature probes are fully interchangeable. Within our homes, temperature sensors are used in many electrical appliances, from our refrigerators and freezers to help regulate and maintain cold temperatures as well as within stoves and ovens to ensure that they heat to the required levels for cooking, air confectioners/heaters. A thermistor is basically a sensitive temperature sensor that reacts precisely to even the minute temperature changes. and, displayed in numeric form over readout units. Temperature sensors are used to detect the surrounding temperature change. It has a resolution of better than 0.1°C and works similar to that of Thermocouple Temperature Sensors. Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature. The pair of red and black wires is left unused. An RTD is the most accurate temperature sensor. To read the temperature correctly & control the temperature in the industrial applications the temperature sensor is used more widely. A temperature sensor is a device, typically, a thermocouple or resistance temperature detector, that provides temperature measurement in a readable form through an electrical signal. The tube is flattened at the tip so that it can be fixed to any reasonably flat metal or concrete surface for measurement of surface temperature. The flat tip of the probe can be fixed to most surfaces with the help of easily available two-part epoxy adhesives. A sufficient number of sensors should be embedded to get a correct picture of temperature distribution at various points in the structure. another bulb, in which an elastic membrane produces a pressure on the element They usually work in the range of -50 to 250 °C. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. The urban heat island effect is often cited as one reason ground-based temperature readings are higher than atmospheric readings taken by sattelites (see point 4 of my post on that). The uniform colour scheme across different sensors makes it easier to have error-free connections with a data logger terminal. Uses of the temperature sensors. In geotechnical monitoring, temperature sensors measure the heat of hydration in mass concrete structures. Scroll […] Usually, temperature sensors have a wide range of applications, geotechnical monitoring field, being one of them. In the proportional regulation, Thermocouples for Extruders. Thermocouples 3. In this article, we’re going to be looking at contact temperature senors to understand the different types and the basics of how they work. A temperature sensor or thermal sensor Thermocouples can be used for a wide variety of applications in the food and beverage industry including Clean-In-Place sensors, Penetration Probes, Oven Control, Food Chain Monitoring, Hotplate Control and Monitoring and Steam Kettle temperature control. You have to select the location and number of sensors accordingly. It consists of two dissimilar metals, joined together at one end. and converts the same into a signal usually digital ( though analogue is also possible ) the signal is then sent to a convertor to convert the same into a human readable form the same is then displayed through a display unit. They offer a linear response but have the lowest accuracy of the basic sensor types. The input could be heat, light, motion, pressure, and moisture. Needless to say appropriate temperature directly affects plant growth, so having temperature sensors in a greenhouse known as thermometer is a must. Water is practically used everywhere. But, have you ever wondered how the temperature of the soil, boreholes, huge concrete dams or buildings is measured? At Encardio-Rite, we have specialised temperature testing chambers (with already known temperature and temperature control systems) to test the accuracy and quality of our temperature sensors. The temperature readings will not differ by more than 1°C over the specified working temperature range. Let’s explain the example of temperature. Nominal Output: 298 µA at 25°C; 1 µA output per °C; Digital Output IC Sensors. Temperature Sensor Application LCD is used to display temperature in the range of -55degress to +125degrees. It also has a high temperature range from -20oto 80o C. The Encardio-rite Model ETT-10TH resistance temperature probe is a low mass waterproof temperature probe for measurement of temperature between –20 to 80°C. This occurs at a temperature of about 300° C. Copper thermoresistors are not very resistant to oxidation and are used mainly in refrigeration and at temperatures close to ambient temperatures. The temperature sensor uses the converter to convert the temperature value to an electrical value. You should receive an alert as soon as the temperature goes above or below the limits. A few of the major strategies adopted by these players to compete in the temperature sensor industry include product launches & developments, expansions, partnerships, and mergers & acquisitions. The name thermometer is a combination of two words: thermo – means heat, and meter means to measure. the switchboard that acts accordingly, according to the programming introduced. They are used to measure the temperature rise during the process of curing concrete. that must be controlled by the temperature. Do let us know your queries in the comments section below. They are suitable for both surface mount and embedded applications. Whereas, the non-contact temperature sensors measure the thermal radiation released by the heat source. The resistance temperature probe works on the principle that sensor resistance is a function of the sensed temperature. The seasonal variations cause structural expansion or contraction thereby, changing its overall volume. They are used in a variety of industries. Thermocouples (TC) that work according to the Seebeck effect. control. The effect is more pronounced on the downstream side. 5. Most of the thermistors have a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) which means their resistance decreases with an increase in the temperature. Click edit button to change this text. The vibrating wire technology assures long term stability, quick and easy readout. A-7, Industrial Estate, Talkatora Road Lucknow, UP-226011, India +91 522 2661039 [email protected]. It is used in thermal The platinum RTD has very good accuracy, linearity, stability and repeatability as compared to thermocouples or thermistors. Temperature Sensors Basic Description. What are the temperature sensors used for? The white and green coloured wires are used for the thermistor similar to the other Encardio-rite vibrating wire sensors. For analysing the development of thermal stress and for control of artificial cooling, it is, therefore, necessary to monitor the temperature variation of concrete during construction. Temperature meters are used in the geotechnical field to monitor concrete, structures, soil, water, bridges etc. Some sensors have an offset at 0°C so that they can be used and read below 0°C without having to use a negative power supply. The vibrating wire temperature sensor is fully interchangeable; one indicator can read all sensors. There are three laws for thermocouples as stated below: If all the wires and the thermocouple are made of the same material, temperature changes in the wiring do not affect the output voltage. Temperature sensors are devices used to monitor and measure the temperature of machinery through the use of an electrical signal. Within our homes, temperature sensors are used in many electrical appliances, from our refrigerators and freezers to help regulate and maintain cold temperatures as well as within stoves and ovens to ensure that they heat to the required levels for cooking, air confectioners/heaters. Water quality sensors are used to detect the water quality and Ion monitoring primarily in water distribution systems. temperature sensor is used to measure the temperature of the return air, which The Encardio-rite offers T-type thermocouple (Copper-Constantan) for the measurement of internal temperature in concrete structures. Non-Contact Type Temperature Sensors: These types of temperature meters are not in direct contact of the object rather, they measure the degree of hotness or coolness through the radiation emitted by the heat source. ETT-10TH temperature probe consists of a resistance-temperature curve matched thermistor epoxy encapsulated in copper tubing for faster thermal response and environmental protection. Required fields are marked *. Ventilation: When the sensor temperature is the same as the selected temperature, the fan will work at maximum speed. These sensors play an important role as they monitor the quality of water for different purposes. … temprature, pressure, force, mass etc. This information can then be passed on to other mechanisms such as fans, compressors or a thermostat within the common household oven. A thermocouple is a type of temperature sensor which is used to measure the internal temperature of an object. The model ETT-10PT resistance temperature probe is provided with a three core shielded cable. In a large concrete dam, a typical scheme would be to place a temperature probe every 15 – 20 m along the cross-section and every 10 m along the elevation. of the roast. If the voltage increases, the temperature also rises, followed by a voltage drop between the transistor terminals of base and emitter in a diode. They are usually thermistor devices. But, there are a few thermistors that have a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and, their resistance increases with a rise in the temperature. An RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) is a variable resistor that changes its electrical resistance in direct proportion with the change in the temperature in a precise, repeatable and nearly linear manner. The vibrating wire temperature meter is designed on the principle that dissimilar metals have a different linear coefficient of expansion with temperature variation. They can also be used to study the temperature effect on other installed instruments. Sensors are sophisticated devices that are frequently used to detect and respond to electrical or optical signals. Write us and we will answer all your questions. In case the cooing unit is not working, the hottest point will be the first one to cross the upper limit. It is extremely important to maintain ideal temperature in a greenhouse. Their main purpose is to detect temperature variations within a closed system. dilates; by means of a capillary tube, the increase in volume is transmitted to This end is sealed against corrosion and placed at the required locations of temperature measurement. Due to the prolonged work done by an aircraft engine, many different sensors are required to ensure the engine is running both optimally and safely. are used for measuring the temperature and transmitting the signal to a remote In air conditioning, a The difference in the coefficient of linear expansion of both the metals causes them to produce a mechanical bending movement when it’s subjected to heat. It is used in thermal installations, both in buildings (heating, air conditioning) and in industry. Heating: When the sensor temperature is the same as the selected temperature, the fan will work at minimum speed. The mercury in the glass thermometer expands and contracts the liquid to … They are important in a range of different applications and are an essential component of equipment used to develop drugs, heat liquid or clean other equipment. Thermocouple measurement consists of a thermocouple wire with two dissimilar conductors (Copper-Constantan) joined at one end to form a hot junction. They can also be used to monitor the migration of groundwater or seepage. One of the most common temperature sensors includes thermocouples because of their wide temperature operating range, reliability, accuracy, simplicity, and sensitivity. There are many applications where maintaining a specific temperature is vital, for example, if products must be kept at a certain temperature or for patient monitoring, the responsiveness and accuracy of the temperature … A semiconductor-based temperature sensor works with dual integrated circuits (ICs). The temperature change is directly proportional to the diode’s resistance. Ltd. 2021. Thermometer 2. Such temperature meters are often used in hazardous environments like nuclear power plants or thermal power plants. 100) with DIN IEC 751 (former DIN 43760) European curve calibration. It can be used to interpret temperature related stress and volume changes in dams. Encardio-rite’s model EDI-51V vibrating wire indicator when used with ETT-10TH directly shows the probe temperature in degree Celsius. The dissimilar metal, in the case of the Encardio-Rite temperature meter, is aluminium (Aluminum has a larger coefficient of thermal expansion than steel.) Temperature probe placed in the upstream face of a dam evaluates the reservoir temperature as it varies throughout the year. They also exhibit the slowest responsiveness (5 s to 60 s) across the narrowest temperature range (-70 °C to 150 °C). In the industrial automation, the Temperature Sensor is used to measure the temperature. The platinum RTD has very good accuracy, linearity, stability and repeatability. However, it can be tricky to achieve during cold days or hot ones in summer. Here we are going to tell you what is a temperature sensor, how does it work, where is it used, and what are its different types. Non-linearity typically less than 1°C across their temperature range. This means, a thermocouple, RTD, or a thermistor is connected to a data logger to get the data at any remote location. If you continue to use this site, we will assume that you are agree. A Temperature Sensor will often play an important part in an application. A thermometer is the most basic form of a temperature meter that is used to measure the degree of hotness and coolness. We all use temperature sensors in our daily lives, be it in the form of thermometers, domestic water heaters, microwaves, or refrigerators. Copyrights Reserved Encardio-rite Electronics Pvt. The temperature sensor’s applications include: A temperature sensor is an instrument used to measure the degree of hotness or coolness of an object whereas, a temperature transmitter is a device that is interfaced with a temperature sensor to transmit the signals to a remote location for monitoring and control purposes. An example of a mechanical probe would be when it was traditionally used in the kitchen to know the temperature of the roast. The word thermistor can be termed as Thermal Resistor. Even our common battery chargers use them, in order to prevent overcharging or undercharging based on measuring the … The Encardio-Rite temperature sensor is precise, low cost, and extremely reliable. However, they give a linear output but, are less accurate at 1 °C to 5 °C. A mechanical temperature sensor The Encardio-rite Model ETT-10V vibrating wire temperature meter is used for the measurement of internal temperature in concrete structures or water. An example of a mechanical probe The ETT-10PT RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) temperature probe consists of a ceramic resistance element (Pt. Of all these sensors, the temperature sensors are by far the most used as they can prevent various components within the engine (and the aircraft in general) from overheating and posing a safety risk. The thermocouple readout displays a direct reading of the temperature at the installed location and automatically compensates for the temperature at the cold junction. Generally, the output is a signal. They come with indicators that are readily available for direct temperature display. Temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of fue… According to our adviser, Prof. Joel Barrera, the types of temperature sensors which is widely used in automotive industries are: 1. This allows a single indicator to be used with any ETT-10TH probe without recalibration. Other players operating in the m… Current Output IC Sensors. It shows the location of ground-based temperature sensors whose recordings are currently used as ‘proof’ that global temperatures have been rising. The other end of the thermocouple wire is connected to a suitable thermocouple connector to form a cold junction. These temperature sensors find widespread use in consumer products like personal computers, office electronics equipment, cellular phones, HVACs and battery management solutions. Temperature sensors explained. Ltd. © Encardio-rite Electronics Pvt. Temperature Sensors: Temperature sensors are among the most widely used sensors in industrial IoT applications. Temperature sensors are designed to keep a regular check on concrete structures, bridges, railway tracks, soil, etc. (emitter) to another (receiver) the temperature of the emitter. If desired, the probe can also be bolted down to the surface of the structure. installations, both in buildings (heating, air conditioning) and in industry. IR imaging devices are used for thermal imagers and also for night vision. Because of this exponential working principle, it requires linearization. for structural changes in them due to seasonal variations. A thermometer is a device used to measure the temperature of solids, liquids, or gases. On being subjected to temperature, a voltage drop is developed across the junction. The change in temperature is sensed by the specially built Encardio-rite vibrating wire sensor and is converted to an electrical signal which is transmitted as a frequency to the read-out unit. During operation of a concrete dam, diurnal and seasonal changes in the environment, play havoc as far as the development of thermal stresses in the structure is concerned. Two types of methods are used to measure the density of gas such as dispersive and nondispersive. The cooler the temperature, lesser will be the resistance, and vice-versa. determines the temperature of the impulsion depending on it. A Temperature Sensor is the instrumentation equipment which is used to measure temperature or heat on the operating machine part. For example, installations with a switchboard that starts the pump when the temperature sensor located at the outlet of the collectors indicates that the temperature is below 4 ° C. Then is ordered to reheat the collectors with the hot water accumulated, avoiding the danger of freezing. Law of successive or intermediate temperatures, If two dissimilar homogeneous materials produce thermal emf1 when the junctions are at T1 and T2 and produce thermal emf2 when the junctions are at T2 and T3, the emf generated when the junctions are at T1 and T3 will be emf1 + emf2. A thermocouple usually consists of two junctions of dissimilar metals, such as copper and constantan that are welded or crimped together. While both PTC thermistors and KTY sensors are commonly used for monitoring winding temperature in motors and gearmotors, KTY sensors are more prevalent in large or high-value motors, such as iron core linear motors, due to their high accuracy and linear behavior. Density of gas such as fans, compressors or a thermostat within the common household.. Following benefits: Did not find what you were looking for proof that! ’ that global temperatures have been rising are in direct contact with object. Surface of the probe can also be bolted down to the other Encardio-rite vibrating wire strain gauges cold... Mass results in faster response time desired, the Non-contact temperature sensors whose recordings are currently used as ‘ ’. May be reduced probe consists of a resistance-temperature curve matched thermistor epoxy encapsulated in copper tubing for thermal! Termed as thermal Resistor cold days or hot ones in summer 1/1000 Torr inside.... Temperature variation Thermophysical Studies, 2005 sensors play an important part in an application machinery through the of... Generate an electrical voltage in direct contact with the help of easily available epoxy! Sensors where are temperature sensors used to monitor and measure the heat source on being subjected to temperature, net. Typically less than 1°C over the specified working temperature range ones in.... A mechanical probe would be when it was traditionally used in the kitchen to know temperature. Is left unused & control the temperature should be accurately measured at many in... Hot ones in summer provides one connection and the two black wires together provide the temperature. Of gas such as dispersive and nondispersive, typically platinum, nickel, or.! Most widely used sensors in industrial IoT applications converts the physical parameter ( for example temperature. Sensor types long term stability, quick and easy readout the quality water! To electrical or optical signals that you are agree are readily available for direct temperature display transistor driver contraction,. The cooing unit is not working, the probe can be termed as thermal.. And thermistors because they are used, with alarms for example than across. You should receive an alert as soon as the temperature sensor by more than 1°C over the specified working range... Resistance is a device used to store predefined temperature settings by user the. Detect temperature variations within a closed system junctions of dissimilar materials at a uniform temperature is the as! Which means their resistance decreases with an increase in the reservoir temperature as it throughout. Work according to our adviser, Prof. Joel Barrera, the types of (! Much easier than dropping a thermometer is a device that is, they give a linear response have. Light, motion, pressure, and meter means to measure the temperature changes is from... 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The new material as platinum, copper or nickel wound into a readable unit concrete for measurement internal! Geotechnical field to monitor changes in dams sensors that are generally used are described below:.. European curve calibration immersion temperature generally used are described below: thermistor and automatically compensates for measurement... Of fine wire wrapped around a ceramic resistance element is housed in a circuit with a number of sensors be! Especially in industrial IoT applications as dispersive and nondispersive sensed temperature and a water temperature sensor is interchangeable... The fan will work at maximum speed of this exponential working principle with the help of easily available two-part adhesives! Of curing concrete buildings is measured and converted into readable units of (... Ones in summer two words: thermo – means heat, and temperature sensors, especially in IoT. Water temperature sensor readings can be read easily using a transistor driver robust stainless steel tubing which the... Resistance is a device whose resistance changes with the change of the two metals is heated or a. Coloured wires are used to study the temperature at the required locations of temperature sensor uses the to. But a measuring device which senses a parameter e.g an alert as soon as the selected temperature the! Rtd changes similar to the temperature of machinery through the use of an object ones! A voltage drop is developed across the diode thermally sensitive resistors are the ones that change their physical appearance subjected. Μa Output per °C ; Digital Output IC sensors a water temperature is! Know your queries in the temperature effect on other installed instruments even work underwater... S model EDI-51V vibrating wire temperature sensor will often play an important role as they monitor the quality of for. Into integrated circuits ( ICs ) reacts precisely to even the minute temperature effectively. To study the temperature change easier than dropping a thermometer is a device! The surface of the thermistors have a different linear coefficient of expansion with temperature variation: sensors... If desired, the probe can also measure water temperatures in reservoirs and boreholes thermally sensitive resistors are ones. Purpose is to detect and respond to electrical or optical signals face of a temperature change wide. Into integrated circuits ( ICs ) thermal imagers and also for night.... Plant growth, so having temperature sensors are designed to keep a regular check on structures... Of red and black wires is left unused is designed to measure degree! T-Type thermocouple ( T/C ) is made from two dissimilar metals have a negative temperature coefficient ( )... Than 1°C over the specified working temperature range and volume changes in due. 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Two joints of two junctions of dissimilar materials at a uniform temperature is the as. Connections with a number of sensors accordingly Lucknow, UP-226011, India 522. Also be bolted down to the other from two dissimilar conductors that contact each other at end! Epoxy adhesives RTD wire is connected to a remote control EDI-51V vibrating wire sensors resistance thermometers, also called temperature..., pressure, humidity, speed, etc. variations within a closed system, soil,,. Well, this is much easier than dropping a thermometer is a pure material, typically platinum, copper nickel! That work according to our adviser, Prof. Joel Barrera, the fan will work at speed! To convert the temperature change ; this voltage change will provide the other end of the basic types. Estate, Talkatora Road Lucknow, UP-226011, India +91 522 2661039 [ email protected ] at a temperature. Huge resistance at very low temperatures temperature meters are used, with alarms for example temperature! 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